1. Definition of Creative City
In the 21th century, the economic system based on knowledge and information is being built. Amid this, the look of city is estimated to be changed into new shape not the industrial centered city. If the global city like New York was the model of city before, now, the compact city with international network and clear individual and cultural identity is emerging as a new model. One of such alternatives is the creative city. In a word, creative city is a city where creative people put their heads together and come up with creative ideas, and voluntarily try to solve local problems. However, the creative idea is not searched from the universalized solutions such as urban development theory and central government policy but found from the history, culture, asset of city and memory and experience in the past. Therefore, the creative city is defined as “a city that seeks sustainable development of the city based on cultural assets and creativity”
2. Necessity of Creative City
In general, the creative city is the plan that tries to solve the current problems as an industrial city. For example, Malmo, Sweden, which used to be a shipbuilding city, and Bilbao, Spain, which used to be a city of steel industry are such cases. When major industries are on the brink of collapse, and the urban economies face difficulties, they tried to solve the problems by advancing to the creative city by utilizing the cultural assets and creativity of cities.
1. Definitions of UNESCO Creative City
It was 2004 when UN’s educational and cultural institution UNESCO started the discussion of making the international creative city network. At that time, UNESCO insisted to keep the cultural variety of each city and region by worrying too uniformed cultures amid the flow of globalization. Therefore, it was UNESCO Creative City network that is made for each city to develop various cultural industries and to activate the international cultural exchange at the city level. UNESCO Creative City networks have 7 categories such as Crafts and Folk Arts, Literature, Film, Music, Design, Media Arts, Food, and one of them can be selected depending on the cultural characteristics, environment, and preference of applicant city. The cities that participate in UNESCO Creative City network as of now in 2022 are 295 cities of 96 countries in total. In Korea, Seoul (Design, 2010), Icheon (Crafts and Folk Arts, 2010), Jeonju (Gourmet, 2012), Busan (Film, 2014), Gwangju (Media Art, 2014), Tongyeong (Music, 2015), Daegu (Music), 2017), Bucheon (Literature, 2017), and Gimhae (Crafts and Folk Arts, 2021) have joined and are active. Jinju City was officially designated as UNESCO Crafts and Folk Art Creative City on October 30, 2019 (local time).
2. Objectives of Creative City network
① Strengthen international cooperation between Creative Cities by extracting creativity from strategic elements of sustainable urban development through culture and art. ② Strengthen activities to creatively create elements of urban development through partnerships between civil society and the public and private sectors ③ Strengthen the creation, development, dissemination and sharing of cultural activities for goods and services through network activities ④ Expand opportunities for creators and experts in the cultural field and develop a hub for creativity and innovation ⑤ 5 Improve access to cultural products and services as well as cultural life of marginalized and vulnerable groups and individuals ⑥ 1 Integrate creative industries and culture into regional development strategies and plans - Source : Jinju City UNESCO Creative City Steering Committee & UNESCO Korean National Commission